Library guide to Harvard referencing method

Taking something from one man and making it worse is plagiarism” George Moore (1873-1958)

While you are studying you will come across other people’s ideas, either via books, lectures, journals or the Internet. When you begin your assignments you will be asked to make use of these ideas but give credit where it is due. Each time you refer to the work of others, reference it correctly, both in the text of your essay/assignment and in a list at the back of your essay/assignment. Citing and referencing is the official name for ‘quoting’. References must always be provided whenever you use someone else's opinions, theories, data or any ideas which are not your own. You need to reference information from books, articles, videos, web sites, images, computers and any other print or electronic sources. A reference is required if you:
paraphrase (use someone else's ideas in your own words) summarise (use a brief account of someone else's ideas) quote (use someone else's exact words) copy (use someone else's figures, tables or structure)

There are various styles of referencing. The method explained here is called the Harvard (name, date) method but check with your lecturers on their preferred style. Even within the Harvard method there are variations so always check your referencing style against the guidelines provided by your lecturer. ENDNOTE WEB provides for a variety of bibliographic styles.
There are two essential elements to referencing,
Citing means placing brief details (name and date) as a place mark in the text of your essay/assignment which leads the reader to the full reference at the back
Reference List – Provides full details of the cited material in alphabetical order to allow the reader find the reference.
Why should I reference?
• To acknowledge the work of others
• So that anyone can track the references that you have used.
• To avoid plagiarism
• To back up any arguments made in your assignment
• Satisfy your lecturers that you have read around the subject and know how to research.

What is the difference between a list of references and a bibliography?
􀀹 Reference list – a single alphabetical list by author of everything you have specifically mentioned in your assignment
􀀹 Bibliography – a list of sources you have read but not specifically mentioned in your assignment

Citing within the text.

Citing involves referring to sources such as books, journal articles, websites etc. in the main text. Sometimes this causes as much consternation to students as creating the reference list. While researching for your assignment check on the variations used by other (good quality) authors to reference material. It is easy to find yourself using the same introductory words for the citation, e.g. According to. Please see below a list of some words which could be used as alternatives when citing in text.

Argues
Define
observes
states
demonstrate
Identifies
hypothesis
Shows
explains
proposes
concludes
Finds
Claims
Notes
suggests
indicates
describes
Reports

When citing references in text, give the author’s name, year of publication and page number(s) if appropriate,

Examples:

Murphy (2007, p24) argued that...
In a recent study (Murphy, 2007, p24) it was argued that...
When there are 2 authors, give both in citation,
In a recent study (Murphy & Smith, 2007, p24) it was argued that...
When there is no author or it cannot be identified use the title,
A survey (Science students in the library, 2007) showed that...
When citing a web page, cite by author if possible or if there is no obvious author use the URL,
The latest library study (http://www.onlinelibrary.survey.org., 2007) revealed...

What details do you need to keep for referencing?
Always remember that you are leading the reader to the work that you are referencing.
For a book:
Author(s) or editors (Date) Title. Where and when it was published: who published it. (If found on the
Internet what is the web address and when did you access it.)
For a journal article:
Author (Year of publication) Title of article. Title of journal Volume number (if present) Part number (if
present) Page number(s). (If accessed via a library database include the name of the database and date
accessed.)
For a website:
Author or owner of web page year Title of page. URL (full website address) and date accessed. (If the
work is from an email or discussion forum then note this too). Web sites form a major part of any
reference list nowadays so it is important to reference them correctly. Just copying over the http
address is not sufficient.

Reference List
When creating the reference list at the back of your essay, the sources should be listed alphabetically by
author’s surname, text should be left justified, and the references should never be preceded by a bullet-
point or number. Where the author is anonymous or unknown for any one source, insert that source in the
alphabetical list using the title of the source instead of the author’s name. All sources should be listed
together; there should not be separate lists for books versus journal articles versus electronic sources. The
reference list should be on a separate page from the rest of the assignment and should be simply titled
‘References’ or ‘Literature Cited’ and the title should be in the same font and size as the other headings in
your assignment.

Formats for:
• Books

Author(s) surname [comma] initial(s) [each initial with full stop] (year of publication) Title of Book or
Report: Subtitle [if any] [fullstop]. ed. [if not first edition] Place of Publication [colon] Publisher
[fullstop] Note: Only mention subsequent editions other first one and place the Title in italics.
e.g. Pears, R. and Shields, G. (2004) Cite them right: referencing made easy. Newcastle upon Tyne:
Northumbria University.
• Journals (print)

Author(s) name, initial(s). (year of publication) 'Title of article', Title of Journal, Volume(Issue
number), [or] date/month of publication [in the absence of volume and issue], page number(s).
Guideline
A journal article available on the web in PDF format can be referenced as if you had read it in
the original print journal. A journal article available on the web in any other format (HTML or as
a web page) must be referenced as an article in an e-Journal.

Author(s) surname(s) [comma] initial(s) [each initial with full stop] (year of publication) Title of article
[fullstop] Title of Journal [comma] Volume (Issue number) [or] date/month of publication [in the
absence of volume and issue] [p. or pp.] page number(s) [dash between numbers and full stop at end].
e.g. Brophy, J. and Bawden, D. (2005) Is Google enough?: Comparison of an internet search engine with
academic library resources. Aslib Proceedings, 57 (6) pp.498-512.
Tip: A journal article available on the web in PDF format can be referenced as if you had read it in the
original print journal. A journal article available on the web in any other format (e.g. HTML) must be
referenced as an article in an e-Journal.
• Journals from databases (e-journals)

Exactly the same as journals but treat similar to websites by adding in [Online], full webaddress and date
accessed.
e.g. Brophy, J. & Bawden, D. (2005) Is Google enough?: Comparison of an internet search engine with
academic library resources. Aslib Proceedings, [Online]. 57 (6) pp.498-512. Available at:
http://www.emeraldinsight.com/Insight/ViewContentServlet?Filename=Published/EmeraldFullTextArticle/Articles/2760570602.html. [Accessed 10th November 2007].


• Websites

Owner of website [fullstop] (year created or last updated) Title of website in italics [fullstop] [Online]
[fullstop] Available at[colon] full web site address [Open square bracket] Accessed date [close square
bracket] [fullstop]
University of Limerick Library. (2005) Cite it right, a guide to referencing in UL using the Harvard
referencing style [Online]. Available at: http://www.ul.ie/~library/pdf/citeitright.pdf. [Accessed 10th
November 2007].

Tip. The ‘author’ of a web page refers to the organisational author, not the individual who may have
designed or created the site. Use the site’s logo and banner to identify the organisational
author.
Sample Reference list which lists some further reading (formats in action):
Brophy, J. & Bawden, D. (2005) Is Google enough?: Comparison of an internet search engine with
academic library resources. Aslib Proceedings [Online]. 57 (6) pp.498-512. Available at:
http://www.emeraldinsight.com/Insight/ViewContentServlet?Filename=Published/EmeraldFullTextArticle/Articles/2760570602.html. [Accessed 10th November 2007].
(if viewed in HTML format, however, if viewed in PDF format then reference as a print journal
reference)
Brophy, J. and Bawden, D. (2005) Is Google enough?: Comparison of an internet search engine with
academic library resources. Aslib Proceedings, 57 (6) pp.498-512.

Pears, R. and Shields, G. (2004) Cite them right: referencing made easy. Newcastle upon Tyne:
Northumbria University.

Monash University Library. (2007) Citing and referencing: how to acknowledge your sources. [Online].
Available at: http://www.lib.monash.edu.au/tutorials/citing/ [Accessed 10th November 2007]

University of Limerick Library. (2005) Cite it right, a guide to referencing in UL using the Harvard
referencing style. [Online]. Available at: http://www.ul.ie/~library/pdf/citeitright.pdf. [Accessed 10th
November 2007].

What happens if?
• I want to reference a number of titles by the same author?
o List works by the same author(s) in date order.

• The author has written a number of works in the same year?
o If an author has several works in a year, then add a letter (a), (b), (c) etc to the year for
every instance

• There are more than 3 authors?
o Use the surname of the 1st author and et al in italics in text, (e.g. Murphy et al, 2007).
However, list all authors in the Reference list.


Note: This is only a small sample of the variety of information formats which may be referenced
e.g. conference proceedings, legislation, reference materials such encyclopedias, emails, mailing
lists, thesis, DVDs, radio or television interviews, etc.. Each format possesses their own individual
format for creating the reference. For further examples check on the University of Limerick
website or with the ASK-A-LIBRARIAN service in the AIT library.

How to... use the Harvard reference system - Source - Emerald


Tutorial from University of Limerick - lasts for 4 minutes, but is a good introduction - (Added 1st June, 2012).

Article Sections

  1. What is the Harvard reference system?
  2. [[/authors/guides/write/harvard.htm?part=2|Elements of a Harvard-style reference]]
  3. [[/authors/guides/write/harvard.htm?part=3|An interactive demonstration]]
  4. [[/authors/guides/write/harvard.htm?part=4|References within the text]]
  5. [[/authors/guides/write/harvard.htm?part=5|Using bibliographic software]]

What is the Harvard reference system?

The Harvard reference system, also known as the author-date system, is Emerald's approved system of citing other works. A distinguishing feature of the system is that in the body of the text, the cited work is given a simple parenthetical reference as follows:
"While information sharing between the private and public sector has improved since 9/11, sharing of information requires additional enhancements (Dacey, 2002)."
"Although much recent research has focused on the importance of long-term strategic relationships (Morgan and Hunt, 1994; Wilson, 1995)."
The quoted work will then be listed in full, in alphabetical order, in a section entitled "References" at the end of the article.
References should be used whenever you use a direct quotation from another author, also when you are quoting someone else's opinion or research. Sometimes, the reference may be direct, as in the second example, at others it may be indirect, as in the first, when the author is acknowledging that he or she has taken the statement from someone else's work.

Printed from: http://www.emeraldinsight.com/authors/guides/write/harvard.htm?part=1 on Thursday May 31st, 2012 © Emerald Group Publishing Limited


ENDNOTE -


Check out our new and updated series of EndNote 'How to' Guides which provide step-by-step instructions for carrying out some key tasks with this favourite referencing managing software. These instructive documents make handy resources for new users and provide software trainers with equally useful, ready-made materials to furnish delegate packs. So whether you make these links freely available on your Intranet or download and print these documents yourself, we're sure you'll put them to good use.

There are seven 'How to' Guides to choose from:

How... shall I gather my references: http://www.adeptscience.co.uk/go?pg=DA267

How to... import PDFs using EndNote: http://www.adeptscience.co.uk/go?pg=AD268

How to... use the EndNote online capture tool: http://www.adeptscience.co.uk/go?pg=DA269

How to... Sync to an existing EndNote Web library: http://www.adeptscience.co.uk/go?pg=AD270

How to... start using the EndNote Sync feature: http://www.adeptscience.co.uk/go?pg=DA271

How to... collaborate with other using EndNote: http://www.adeptscience.co.uk/go?pg=AD272

How to... convert from Reference Manager to EndNote: http://www.adeptscience.co.uk/go?pg=DA273